Energy prices can be extremely volatile, due to the fact that energy is possibly the most tactical and political product in the world. The price of energy affects not only industries, but nations, as well. In this article, we will explore how the energy market influences almost everything that we do.
An energy futures contract is a legally binding agreement for delivery of crude, unleaded gas, heating oil or natural gas in the future at an agreed upon price. The contracts are standardized by the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), as to quantity, quality, time and place of delivery. Only the price is variable.
Because they trade at a centralized exchange, futures contracts offer more financial leverage, flexibility and financial integrity than trading the commodities themselves.
Futures contracts offer speculators a higher risk/return investment vehicle because of the amount of leverage involved with commodities. Energy contracts in particular are highly leveraged products. For example, one futures contract for crude oil controls 1,000 barrels of crude. The dollar value of this contract is 1,000-times the market price for one barrel of crude. If the market is trading at $60/barrel, the value of the contract is $60,000 ($60 x 1,000 barrels = $60,000). Based on exchange margin rules, the margin required to control one contract is only $4,050. So, for $4,050, one can control $60,000 worth of crude. This gives investors the ability to leverage $1 to control roughly $15.
Energies are traded at a few different exchanges around the world, for example, in London and now at the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE). Here, we will only look at the contracts traded at the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).
Crude accounts for 40% of the world's energy supply, and is the most actively traded commodity contract worldwide. Crude is the base material that makes gas, diesel, jet fuels and thousands of other petrochemicals.
More specifically, the type of crude in question is the light sweet crude oil variety, which, according to NYMEX, contains lower levels of sulfur. This type of crude is traded in dollars and cents per barrel, and each future contract involves 1,000 barrels. As in the example above, when crude is trading at $60/barrel, the contract has a total value of $60,000. For example, if a trader is long at $60/barrel, and the markets move to $55/barrel, that is a move of $5,000 ($60 – $55 = $5, $5 x 1,000 bl. = $5,000).
The minimum price movement, or tick size, is a penny. Although the market frequently will trade in sizes greater than a penny, one penny is the smallest amount it can move.
Crude has a daily limit of $10/barrel, which is expanded every five minutes as needed. This means crude will never have an upper or lower lock limit. Remember, a $10 difference in a barrel of oil is a move of $10,000 per contract.
The requirements of the exchange specify delivery to numerous areas on the coast and inland. These areas are subject to change by the exchange. For example, currently for the NYMEX, the delivery point is in Cushing, Oklahoma.
Because energy is in such demand, is it deliverable all 12 months of the year. To maintain an orderly market, the exchanges will set position limits. A position limit is the maximum number of contracts a single participant can hold. There are different position limits for hedgers and speculators.
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, about 25% of the total energy consumption in the United States is natural gas. Within the 25%, about half is used by industry, while the other half by commercial and residential users. Natural gas is one of the bigger futures contracts that are traded worldwide. One contract equals 10,000 MM Btus (million British thermal units). If the current market price is $6 per MM Btus, the contract has a value of $60,000 ($6 x 10,000 MM Btus = $60,000).
The minimum tick is $0.001, or $10 per tick per contract. For example, let's say you buy a contract of natural gas when the market is at $6, and then sell it at $7. In this transaction, you would have made $10,000 on the $1 move in natural gas.
Like other energies, natural gas is deliverable all year round and has position limits. The delivery point for natural gas traded on the NYMEX is at the Sabine Pipe Line Company's Henry Hub, which is located in Louisiana.
The primary function of any futures market is to provide a centralized marketplace for those who have an interest in buying/selling physical commodities at some time in the future. The energy futures market helps hedgers reduce the risk associated with adverse price movements. There are a number of hedgers in the energy markets because almost industrial sectors uses energy in some form. The energy complex is quite volatile and takes quite a bit of capital to get involved, although there are new e-mini contracts available, which are growing in volume month by month.